Physical Link Layer and Data Link Layer of OSI (Open System Interconnection) Model


Physical Layer:-
          The Physical
Layer is responsible for sending bits from one computer to another computer. That
is ,

it may convert the sequence of bits into electric signals, light signals,
or electromagnetic signals, depending on whether the two nodes are on a cable
circuit, fiber-optic circuit, or microwave circuit, respectively.

In addition, the physical layer protocols also deal
with the mechanical details, such as the size and shape of the connecting
plugs, the number of pins in the plugs, and the function of each pin.
Functions of the physical layer are following:-
1. This
layer is responsible for sending bits from source computers to destination
computer.
2. Bit
transmission encoding
3. Transmission
rate (i.e. the number of bits transmitted per second)

4. Line
configuration

5. Transmission
Mode
6. Topology

7. Multiplexing









Data Link Layer :-
 

Layer 2 of the OSI model provides the following
functions: 
• Allows a device to access the network to send and
receive messages
• Offers a physical address so a device’s data can
be sent on the network
• Works with a device’s networking software when
sending and receiving messages
• Provides error-detection capability 
Common
networking components that function at layer 2 include: 
• Network interface
cards
• Ethernet and Token Ring switches
• Bridges NICs have a layer 2 or MAC address. 
A switch uses this address to filter and forward
traffic, helping relieve congestion and collisions on a network segment.

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